Kandyk, or erythronium (Erythronium) belongs to the genus of perennial plants belonging to the Liliaceae family. In the wild, this flower is found in the highlands in the countries of North America, Europe, as well as on the Japanese islands. The genus name has Greek roots. The definition "kandyk" in translation from Greek means "dog's tooth". Today, many species are endangered and are included in the list of rare plant representatives of the flora. The genus has about 29 names. Breeders managed to adapt only a few specimens for cultivation.
The height of erythronium stems can reach up to 30 cm. Occasionally longer flower stamps grow. The shape of the bulbs is cylindrical. Leaves are opposite with petiolate base. In some species, the leaf blades are painted in a solid green color, in others they are covered with dark spots. They are located near the peduncle, where a large perianth is formed, which consists of six multi-colored petals. It happens that several flowers are formed on the arrow. The flowering period is in mid-spring. After the flowers fall, an elongated seed capsule appears.
Erythroniums, which are characterized by early spring flowering, are recommended to be planted in a plot located in the northern part of the garden. Here they will be protected by the shadow cast by the crown of trees and bushes. This moderate light is sufficient for the growth and formation of flowers. Later species prefer open and illuminated areas. Adhering to these recommendations, you can slightly delay the flowering moment of early varieties, or increase the rate of ovary formation in late representatives of the kandyk.
The plant develops rapidly on peaty and wet types of soils with an acidic environment with an admixture of leafy soil, humus and sand. Before planting a flower on a site, it is enriched with mineral fertilizers, crushed chalk and bone meal.
For propagation of kandyk, seeds or bulbs are used. Species of American origin can reproduce exclusively by seed. Seeds are collected in early summer.
After ripening, the seed pods crack quickly, so you need to carefully monitor the opening and prevent the seeds from falling to the ground. The boxes are removed slightly unripe and then dried in a dry and ventilated room. The best time for planting bulbs and seeds is August.
Kandyk seeds are placed in shallow grooves, observing an interval of at least 5 cm from each planting material. After that, the grooves are covered with a thin layer of earth and watered. In regions where cold and frosty winters are often observed, it is recommended to cover the beds with crops. Seedlings are expected to appear in spring. After a month, the sprouts reach a length of about 4 cm.If during this time the seedlings will lag behind in growth, it is worth paying extra attention to watering and feeding. In the first year of life, bulbs with a diameter of 4 mm are formed, the next year - 7 mm. After three years, they take the shape of a cylinder and increase significantly in size. The flowering of erythroniums, which were grown from seeds, begins only 4-5 years after the formation of the first shoots. Before spring sowing, it is imperative to stratify the seeds in the refrigerator for 2 months, wrapping them in a plastic bag containing peat and wet sand.
Special conditions are imposed on bulbous flower cultivation, since certain types of kandyk have their own preferences. Bulbs of American varieties must be placed deeper in the ground than other types. At the end of planting, it is better to mulch the area with crops with any organic material and water thoroughly.
Caring for a kandyk is very simple. The flower can do with little or no watering. Thanks to mulching, it is possible to avoid frequent loosening and the appearance of weeds.
Since erythronium belongs to the early spring flowering forms, there is enough natural moisture. Only under the condition of prolonged dry weather, the site is additionally moistened.
Periodically, loosening of the soil is carried out near the plantings. It is impractical to feed the soil in the first year, since there is still a sufficient amount of nutrients in the substrate. Mulching the area with peat or humus helps to retain moisture. Erythronium also needs fertilizing with mineral fertilizers used for decorative flowers.
Adult kandyk plants that have reached four or five years of age are transplanted to a new place. To do this, the old bulbs are dug up and divided into parts. Transplant activities are carried out in July-August so as not to disrupt the growth of the kandyk. At this time, the leaves of the flower will turn yellow, and the bulbs, on the contrary, will get stronger. After the babies are disconnected from the mother's bulb, the surface of the fractures is smeared with coal powder. Next, the resulting material is planted in the grooves. Bulbs are not stored for long in the air. The scales dry out quickly and begin to fall off. It is allowed to store bulbs in wooden containers filled with damp sand, moss or peat.
Kandyk demonstrates resistance to cold and frost, so it will survive without additional shelter. Nevertheless, experienced gardeners still recommend covering the area with erythronium in areas where severe and snowless winters prevail.
The flower is not afraid of diseases and insects. However, the crops are occasionally attacked by field mice, moles and bears. For preventive purposes, planting is done in different parts of the garden. Traps are used to catch pests. Moles and mice are lured with poisonous baits. To catch a bear, fresh manure is poured into the dug hole, where insects will quickly lay eggs. Homemade traps are covered with boards or pieces of slate. Soon, pests gather there, after which they can be destroyed.
Certain varieties of erythronium are in demand more than other types. Consider several popular types of kandyk:
Erythronium american - a flowering perennial that grows in temperate and subtropical latitudes in Canada and the United States. Some plant forms are able to climb even to a height of 1500 m. The bulbs are ovoid, elongated, the surface of the scales is spotty. The length of the leaves is about 20 cm, and the peduncles are 30 cm. The color of the perianth leaves is deep yellow.
Erythronium whitish - Found in the Central American States and Canada. Lobeless perianth leaves are presented in pink or blue.
Erythronium multi-stem - can be seen in warm regions in the southwestern United States. The plant has oval bulbs. Leaf blades are spotty. The upper part of the flowers is yellow and the lower part is orange. Pedicels are long.
Erythronium Henderson - one of the very first species that came to Europe. Prefers to grow in dry and spacious forests. The rhizome is small, the bulbs are oblong. The leaves are covered with dark spots. The height of the stem ranges from 10-30 cm. The color of the flowers is pale purple, the base of the buds is black.
Erythronium mountain - the area of growth affects the territory of the alpine meadows of the American states, located in the northwest. This is the highest representative of the kandyk with petiolate ovoid leaves and pink or snow-white flowers. Bracts are bright orange.
Erythronium is an amazing plant honey plant that contains sugars, vitamin E, acids and many nutrients. The honey collected from kandyk flowers has a light pleasant aroma and valuable medicinal properties. The tissues of the flower contain vitamins, enzymes and various emollients. It is recommended to use honey for severe coughs and fever. It is used in the cosmetic industry for the production of antiseptic honey water, which has a beneficial effect on the skin.
Erythronium bulbs are often used in traditional medicine. They contain traces of antispasmodics and higher alcohols. As an effective folk remedy, freshly harvested bulbs are used to treat epileptic seizures and prevent seizures. The leaves are edible, they are eaten fresh or pickled. It is good to rinse hair with deciduous broth. It perfectly strengthens and restores hair follicles.
The stamens of flowers are covered with pollen during flowering, the presence of which can provoke allergic reactions in people who are sensitive to this kind of irritants. Allergy symptoms include a runny nose, redness of the tip of the nose, and a rash on the skin. In this case, it is better to seek medical help immediately.
The plant's honey also poses some danger, since after its use in the body, the sugar level rises markedly. For this reason, people with various forms of diabetes should be careful when choosing such a product. It is not recommended to take honey together with multivitamin tablets and dietary supplements, otherwise there will be a risk of hypervitaminosis.
KANDYK (School of Herbal Science)
The first long-awaited spring flowers appear on the snow thawed patches. In the summer, when there are so many bright colors around, they would hardly be paid special attention to. But after a long winter, even a tiny bud of a mother-and-stepmother who grew up on bare ground delights us. There are many primroses that can decorate our site. Among them there are those that are still too early to be considered popular.
Spring adonis, or Spring adonis (Adonis vernalis). This perennial (150 years or more) early flowering herb of the Buttercup family was known as a medicinal plant in the 16th century. They were treated for heart disease. Blooms in April - May for 2 - 3 weeks. Adonis, whose flowers light up in the sun, is considered a difficult crop to grow by amateur flower growers. Popular names ("yellow flower", "golden flower") contain a hint of the color of the flower. In cloudy weather and at night, the flowers close. When growing on a site, it is worth paying attention to the fact that adonis grows better in nature on black earth soils. It is advisable to finish off a small amount of lime. The place should be well lit, shading can destroy the adonis. Reproduction is difficult due to the low germination of seeds (up to 30%), which have an underdeveloped embryo. They need to be sown within one year. Dividing the rhizome is not the best way of reproduction, since after that the adonis may not take root. There are several varieties of spring adonis, even with white flowers.
Anemones, or anemone (Anemona). Some species of this plant of the Buttercup family replenish the number of primroses. Among them anemone Radde (Anemone raddeana), which grows naturally in the Far East. Mass bloom in April - May for two weeks. The maximum height of the peduncle is 25 cm, usually 10 - 15 cm. The flower with white "petals" has a diameter of about 4 cm. The most popular type is the oak anemone (Anemone nemorosa), which grows in the forests of the middle zone and blooms from the beginning of May. Oak anemone loves loose soils. There is a terry variety "Vestal", which blooms later, by mid - end of May.
Spring white flower (Leucojum vernum), like the snowdrop, belongs to the Amaryllis family. This bulbous perennial blooms very early, appearing on thawed patches. The flowers are white, the edges of the petals are corrugated, there is a yellow or greenish spot on the petals. A peduncle up to 20 cm high can hold not one, but two flowers. Leaves appear towards the end of flowering. The plant grows rapidly (especially in partial shade of trees), forming bouquets of blooming primroses on moist nutrient soil. Grows well in low places. Avoids acidified soils, grows better on nutritious soil mixture. Propagated by freshly harvested seeds (flowering will have to wait up to 6 - 7 years) and children (dry up quickly). Bulb nests should be planted after 5 to 6 years. In the summer, planting a white flower must be watered.
Bulbokodium spring, or spring brandy (Bulbocodium vernum). This perennial stemless tuberous plant (from the Mediterranean, southern part of Eastern Europe, southern Ukraine) with a height of only 7 - 8 cm has pinkish-lilac flowers. They appear in April - May, flowering lasts about three weeks. Narrow, green leaves with a bluish tinge, which grow up to 25 cm long, turn yellow and die off by the middle of summer. Prefers sunny places, fertile soil. Reproduction by seeds (blooms for 6 - 7 years) and corms.
Iridodictium (Iridodictyum). Miniature bulbous perennial iris belonging to the Iris family. Flowers appear in April - May. In some species, they are fragrant. All types and varieties are decorative, perfect for rockeries and flower beds, where the bulbs are planted on the south side. The color of the flowers is different. It is a bulbous winter-hardy, most species overwinter without cover. The light-loving plant tolerates partial shading. On fertile soils (neutral), a whole nest of bulbs is formed in three years. Poorly tolerates prolonged waterlogging and planting in damp places. The bulbs are left without transplant for 4 - 5 (up to 8) years. In the flower departments of shops you can buy bags of iridodictium bulbs of the same color or mixture. Until the moment of planting in the second half of September, they are stored at a temperature of about 18 - 20 ° C. Seed propagation is more often used for breeding purposes.
Marsh marigold (Caltha palusrtis). The name of this plant confirms its craving for damp places: "kaluga" = "puddle, swamp". One of the popular names for the marigold is "frog". You can see marigold near water bodies and on damp meadows in most of Russia, when its bright yellow simple flowers bloom from the end of April. There is a garden form with white-yellow flowers and golden-yellow double flowers. Flowering lasts about 20 days. After the end of flowering, the leaves grow. All parts of the marigold are slightly poisonous. The marigold appeared on our site by itself. Not only near a decorative pool, but also under ... a blackberry. This golden-flowered plant looks wonderful in spring. Later it dissolves in the greenery of other plants.
Kandyk (Erythronium). This interesting plant, called "dog canine" for the color and shape of the bulb, grows in forest edges, meadows and in moist but light forests. Some species are grown by amateur flower growers on their plots. This is, first of all, hybrid erythronium, which blooms in April. Flowering does not last long, no more than two weeks. There are varieties with bright crimson flowers, lilac-pink, white, etc. Their central part has a contrasting color. American erythronium, whitish erythronium and some other species (Siberian Kandyk, Caucasian Kandyk) are also grown with slight shading on light soils with an acid reaction. The bulbs are planted and transplanted in the second half of July - in August. Protect them from drying out. Kandyk grows without transplant for up to 6 years, forming a beautiful clump during this time. In the spring, the kandyk is not transplanted!
Crocus, or saffron (Crocus). This is one of the most popular primroses. It is described in detail in the article "Cultivation and reproduction of crocuses".
Merendera three-column (Merendera trigyna).This is a very beautiful corm plant with a height of 5 - 12 cm. It blooms in April (simultaneously with crocuses) and is rarely found in our areas. One of the problems is poor reproduction. Merendera is a cold-resistant culture. Neither spring frosts nor snowfalls kill her. The flowers are pink, which appeared later than the term - whitish. The diameter of each flower is from 3 to 5 cm. Early in the spring, another species blooms, Merendera Radde (Merendera raddeana). Its light purple-pink flowers resemble crocus flowers. Merendera is more often propagated by seeds (sowing in autumn), which bloom for 3-4 years.
Hellebore (Helleborus). This plant of the Buttercup family in Europe is called "Christ's rose". Rhizome perennial with evergreen leaves blooms in April - May. The color of the flowers is white, yellowish with a green tint, burgundy, peach, dark reddish, etc. The hellebore is grown in partial shade. Water in moderation, do not plant in damp places and where melt water stagnates for a long time. High frost resistance. Hellebores reproduce by division, less often by seeds. Caution, the plant is poisonous.
Muscari (Muscari). This unpretentious perennial bulbous primrose is known to many as "mouse hyacinth" or "viper onion". Most likely due to the appearance and smell of some species, reminiscent of musk. There are several dozen species in the genus. Not all of them can be cultivated on the territory of Russia. Muscari are especially good at a young age, until the elongated flower stalks have died under the weight of the inflorescences. Flowers (collected in spike-shaped inflorescences) of different shades of blue color are more common. On our sites, Armenian muscari (Colchis) usually blooms with bright blue flowers and white "teeth". There are varieties with white, purple and dark blue inflorescences. Inflorescences are incredibly decorative with smooth transitions of different shades of color. Flowering (late April - May) lasts 3-4 weeks. The seeds form the lower tiers of the inflorescences, which usually consist of 40 or more flowers. A very interesting late-flowering variety "Blue Spike" has inflorescences with up to 170 flowers. It is decorative for 20 to 22 days. "Terry" varieties of seeds are not tied, they need to be propagated only by children. Other types are also popular, for example, aciniform muscari. It is worth considering the thermophilicity of some species (broadleaf muscari). Bulb nests are planted every five years. When sowing seeds for flowering, you have to wait about three years.
Daffodils... Early varieties of daffodils bloom in late April - early May.
Liverwort (Hepatica). This charming perennial plant blooms in the Moscow region in the second half of April. In nature, it can be seen on slopes and other dry places free of snow. We have a liverwort settled among the stones on an alpine hill. Delicate blue, light blue, whitish, pink and violet-blue simple and double flowers are visible from afar. Bright yellow stamens are clearly visible on them. The liverwort is mastered on the site and begins to weed. You can read about the liverwort in the article "Liverwort noble - April primrose".
Snowdrop, or galanthus (Galanthus). Primrose belongs to the Amaryllis family. More often planted in plots snowdrop snow-white (Galanthus nivalis) or another form, snowdrop elwes (Galanthus elwesii) and its hybrids. This bulbous plant may not bloom for the first couple of years, settling in a new place. After that, Galanthus will invariably bloom in those places where the snow lay yesterday. There are no worries with this primrose. He can stay in one place without a transplant for 5 - 6 years. It is said that the long frosty winter prolongs the flowering period of Galanthus. After the end of flowering, the leaves gradually die off. A detailed description of the snowdrop and its care can be found in the article "Snowdrops (Galanthus) - the first spring flowers."
Proleski, or scilla (Scilla). The earliest of the forest - scilla double (Scilla bifolia) with pink, blue and white flowers. Flowers soon appear scilla siberian (Scilla sibirica) with blue or white flowers. At the same time, blue-white blooms scilla tubergen (Scilla tubergeniana) and large-flowered scilla rosen (Scilla rosenii). Coppersmiths are often weed, as their seeds are taken away by ants. The woodland grows well in semi-shady places.
Pushkinia (Puschkinia) in the Moscow region blooms early, soon after the snow melts (April - early May). Flowering lasts 3 - 4 weeks. Inflorescences are racemose. Pushkin is sometimes confused with Proleskaya. These unpretentious small-bulbous plants grow better in sunny places on well-cultivated soils. Two types are cultivated: Pushkinia proleskidnaya (pale blue flowers, blooms from May) and Pushkinia hyacinth (with pale blue, almost whitish flowers with a bright blue stripe, peduncle height up to 15 cm). Propagated by bulbs (in autumn) and seeds.
Pushkinia next to the liverwort
Chionodox (Chionodoxa). A miniature early flowering bulbous plant of the Liliaceae family is sometimes called the "snowman". Chionodoxa Lucilia blooms in April-May, flowering lasts about 20 days. The flowers are blue-blue, have a white spot in the throat. They are collected in brushes of 5 - 10 pieces. There are forms with white and pink flowers. This unpretentious plant is very winter hardy.
Photos of the first spring flowers you can see here.
Kandyk dog tooth (or European) (Erythronium dens-canis)
Russian name: Kandyk / Dog's Tooth / Erythronium
Latin name: Erythronium
Life cycle: perennial
Underground part type: tuber
Kandyk planting time: September - October
Kandyk flowering period: April-May
Kandyk height: 25-30
Kandyk flower size: 3-4 cm
Kandyk landing distance: 15-20 cm
Planting depth of kandyk bulb: 8-12 cm
Storage conditions for the kandyk: 9-5 * C, protection against drying is required.
Kandyk dog tooth or as it is also called erythronium - a very original early spring bulbous plant. Unusual, as if nodding, star-shaped flowers are located singly, less often 3-4 at the top of 25-30 cm long peduncles growing from a rosette of dark green, often with purple spots, broad-lanceolate leaves. A very beautiful and unusual sight!
The name Dog's tooth - kandyk got its name for the tuber shape: fusiform, in shape and color just like a dog's tooth. And erythronium (from the ancient Greek "erythros" - red), for the color of the flowers of the first found varieties of European kandyk.
Kandyk is a rather unpretentious bulbous plant that does not require special treatment. It grows in one place up to 6 years old, almost not affected by diseases and pests, hibernates without shelter. After a few years, even one kandyk onion gives so many children that it turns into a beautiful and very effective curtain.
Kandyk goes well with other bulbous flowers, so it can be successfully planted in flower beds, mixborders, and on alpine slides.
There are 25 species in the genus of kandyks, but only the following two are mainly used in garden design:
- European Kandyk (Erythronium dens-canis)
- Kandyk revolutum (Erythronium revolutum)
The most popular varieties of kandyk:
Kandyk European Rose Queen / Erythronium dens-canis Rose Queen
Kandyk European Snowflake / Erythronium dens-canis Snowflake
Kandyk European Charm / Erythronium dens-canis Charmer
Kandyk revolutum Pagoda / Erythronium revolutum Pagoda
Kandyk revolutum White Beauty / Erythronium revolutum White Beauty
Summer perennials in the Urals are quite hardy, but still require gardeners to fulfill certain conditions:
These points simply need to be observed in the short Ural summer. Otherwise, perennials will be weakened and may not even bloom. Among the honorable representatives of summer perennials in the Urals are iris varieties.
Very beautiful and delicate flowers. Many gardeners know these plants as northern orchids. They really resemble luxurious tropical epiphytes. But their frost resistance allows you to transfer the beauty of the tropics to the Ural gardens. They bloom in early summer, there are re-flowering varieties. By correctly choosing irises according to the flowering period, you can ensure the decorativeness of the flower bed until frost.
Very good flowers for summer decoration of the Ural flower beds and parks.
The arrangement of the petals resembles an oriental turban. It is a wild form of lilies, common not only in home floriculture, but also in meadows, in the forests of the Urals. Therefore, there are usually no problems with growing locusts. At the present time, for the Ural florists there is a large selection of bred varieties of similar lilies - Marchagon hybrids.
Some gardeners prefer species plants to decorate their plots. In this case, Pennsylvania lily is an excellent choice.
Large brightly colored flowers delight the eye throughout the summer. The red or orange islets of the Pennsylvania lily in the flower beds of the Urals look very picturesque.
Not only colorful, but also a useful perennial. Frost resistance and unpretentious care make it very popular among gardeners in the Ural region. The inflorescences look like luxurious bouquets of lilac, white, lilac or purple. In addition to the decorative function, it also plays the role of a plant suitable for food in the garden.
Sometimes gardeners are not limited to unpretentious verified varieties. For many, the beauty of the Ural flower bed is important, even if it is troublesome. On a site in the Urals, panicle and tree hydrangeas are grown.
They amaze with the luxury of their inflorescences and withstand wintering in the Ural soil.
And, of course, the queen of the garden also grows in the flower arrangements of the Ural gardeners.
It is able not only to decorate a certain area, but also to decorate an unsightly area of the garden. In the Urals, the perennial climbing rose continues to bloom during the first half of summer, but its beautiful bush retains its freshness until the end of the season.
Among the latest "finds" of the Ural gardeners - perennial decorative vines clematis.
It is the small-flowered species that thrive in the gardens of the Urals. Most suitable:
The list of perennials for the fall is much shorter. In the Urals, frosts come early and many plants are not able to withstand their impact. But all the same, the autumn flower beds of the Ural gardeners are never empty.
Merendera trigyna comes from Asia Minor, the Caucasus, from the north of Iran. It grows on dry mountain slopes of different structure - from clayey to stony.
This is a very beautiful and vibrant plant, but very difficult to cultivate. Merenders prefer sunny, dry areas and light soil. They fall out easily in damp conditions. Propagated mainly by seeds, which are not set every year.
During flowering, merenders reach a height of 5-12 cm. The flower is usually single (less often 3-4 flowers), 4-6 cm in diameter, the color is from dark lilac-pink to light pink, sometimes whitish.
Country house - a country house for summer residence and recreation of city dwellers.
In the country - on a summer vacation outside the city.
To the dacha - for a summer vacation outside the city.
Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language edited by prof. D. N. Ushakova
Country house - a summer house outside the city, usually with a garden (summer cottage maison de campagne casa de campo Landhaus)
A Brief Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language, edited by V.V. Rozanova
Why do we love the dacha? Dacha means communication with nature and fishing trips. Autumn walks in the forest and picking mushrooms. At the dacha, you can grow flowers and berries, fruits and vegetables, cucumbers, tomatoes and, of course, greens. Usually at the dacha everyone has a great appetite. At the dacha, it is easy to cook boiled potatoes with dill and a fragrant barbecue on real coals
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It's nice to see new shoots and new flowers spring up in the spring, but what's growing in your garden?
Maybe you just moved in and don't know what the last owner planted in your garden. Or perhaps you are forgetful (like me) and simply cannot remember what you planted in your garden.
This garden flower identification guide will try to answer your plant questions and help you take care of your garden all year round.
Identifying garden flowers will help you take the best possible care of your plants. If you don't know what is growing in your garden, it will be difficult to meet the needs of each plant. Each plant in your garden will have different needs for:
Plus, knowing which plants are in your garden will tell you if there are any medicinal plants or any invasive species in your garden.
Depending on what is in your garden, your work can be done for you. Many small grasses and non-flowering plants can be difficult to identify. Field guides are often useless for identifying garden flowers as they focus on native plants rather than what you find at the garden store.
One of the best ways to identify plants in your garden is to use PlantSnap.PlantSnap is an app for your phone that identifies flowers and plants using an algorithm that analyzes photos and searches our huge plant database to find matches. Just snap a clear photo of unidentified plants in your garden and PlantSnap does the rest!
Sometimes even PlantSnap cannot identify the plants in your garden. As a rule, this is due to the fact that the plants are immature or damaged, or your photo does not meet the requirements (for example, only part of the flower is visible in the photo). The plant identification app works best with very clear, well-lit photos of healthy flowers and / or leaves.
In addition, many indoor plants have been developed for their unusual colors and shapes.This can lead to the algorithm getting a little confused, but be patient, our gardening app is constantly learning and updating!
Sometimes PlantSnap gives you a short list of the possibilities for what your garden has. From there, you can narrow down the possibilities by: